Nanocrystalline Sensor-Grade Sn1-xInxO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2)
Abstract:Nanocrystalline Sn1-xInxO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) has been successfully prepared by a solution chemical route. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show that the average grain size of Sn0.8In0.2O2 heated at 310 °C, 500 °C, and 800 °C for 12 h is about 3-4 nm, 5-6 nm, and 7-10 nm, respectively. The corresponding values for pure SnO2 are 3-4 nm, 7-10 nm, and 50-90 nm, respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction studies confirm the existence of solid solution only in the nanocrystalline state (the average particle size is in the range of 5-10 nm) with the solubility limited to 20% of In2O3. Indium ions stabilize the nanocrystalline nature of Sn1-xInxO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) and prevent the grain growth by entering the SnO2 lattice. The thermal characteristics of nanocrystalline Sn1-xInxO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) show that the solid solution decomposes at 820 °C into SnO2 and In2O3, which is accompanied by a rapid crystal growth. The electrical conductivity and activation energy of Sn1-xInxO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) undergo significant changes when the average grain size is less than or equal to 2 × the Debye length, LD.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Surface Science, Spectroscopy and Solid State Ionics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70813, USA 2: Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA 3: Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, AMSRL-SE-DC, 2800, Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783-1197, USA
Publication date: April 1, 2002
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