Size-Uniform 200 nm Particles: Fabrication and Application to Magnetofection
Abstract:We report on the fabrication of arrays of mono- and multimetallic particles via metal evaporation onto lithographically patterned posts, as well as the magnetic force calibration and successful magnetofection of iron particles grown via this method. This work represents the first instance in which metal evaporation onto post structures was used for the formation of released, shape-defined metal particles. Also, our work represents the first use of lithographically defined particles as agents of magnetofection. Using these techniques it is possible to create particles with complexshapes and lateral dimensions as small as 40 nm. Our demonstrated compositionally flexible particles are highly size-uniform due to their photolithographically defined growth substrates, with particle dimensions along two axes fixed at 200 nm; the third axis dimension can be varied from 20 nm to 300 nm during the deposition procedure. Atomic percent of metals incorporated into the particle volume is highly tunable and particles have been synthesized with as many as four different metals. We performed magnetic force calibrations on a single particle size for iron particles using an axially magnetized NeFeB permanent magnet and comparisons are made with commercially available magnetic beads. In order to evalutate their usefulness as magnetofection agents, an antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) designed to correct the aberrant splicing of enhanced green fluorescent protein mRNA, was successfully transfected into a modified HeLa cell line. Magnetically enhanced gene delivery was accomplished in vitro using antisense ODN-laden iron particles followed by application of a field gradient. Magnetically enhanced transfection resulted in a 76% and 139% increase in fluorescence intensity when compared to Lipofectamine and antisense ODN-loaded particles delivered without magnetic treatment, respectively. To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first use of lithographically defined particles as successful agents for magnetically enhanced transfection of an antisense oligonucleotide.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: April 1, 2009
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