Wet-Chemical Patterned PZT Force Sensors for Minimally Invasive Surgical Tools
Abstract:Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is the most exciting and rapidly developing area where force sensing is actually of central importance. Micromachined piezoelectric sensors can be integrated onto MIS tools for improved diagnosis and treatment monitoring. This paper describes a new approach for patterning PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) films that could be used as force sensors for MIS tools. PZT films of thickness ∼1 m prepared by a sol–gel process were wet-chemical patterned using an economical and effective etch process. The etch recipe provided excellent etch control, minimized undercut, preserved the photoresist mask, and effectively removed the residues on the etched surfaces. A high etch rate (200 nm/min), high selectivity with respect to photoresist, and limited under-cutting (1.5:1, lateral:thickness) were obtained. This enabled successful patterning of PZT films with reliable electrical characteristics. The patterned PZT films exhibited good ferroelectric properties in terms of larger saturation polarization, Pmax of ∼53 C/cm2, at an applied field of 1 MV/cm, higher remnant polarization, Pr of ∼30 C/cm2, for a coercive field of ∼150 kV/cm, fatigue free characteristics up to ≥1010 switching cycles, and a low leakage current density of 10−6 A/cm2 at 200 × kV/cm.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 2005
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