Microstructure and Composition of Sn1–xPbxS Films and Whiskers Grown by Hot Wall Technique
Authors: Lazenka, Vera V.; Bente, Klaus; Kaden, Ronny; Ivanov, Vasiliy A.; Gremenok, Valeriy F.
Source: Journal of Advanced Microscopy Research, Volume 6, Number 1, February 2011 , pp. 53-57(5)
Publisher: American Scientific Publishers
Abstract:Sn1–xPbxS (0.08 ≤ x ≤ 0.16) thin films and whiskers with orthorhombic crystal structure of α-SnS were produced by hot wall vacuum deposition method (HWVD). The whiskers grew via a self-consuming vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) mechanism by means of Sn-droplets onto the surface of an underlying thin film which is build by differently oriented blocks. As revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) experiments there is no composition gradient across the whiskers and the underlying thin film. TEM and X-ray analysis showed that the whiskers and polycrystalline thin films have a preferential orientation along  perpendicular to the substrate surface. Scanning electron microscopy investigations indicate a strong dependence of whiskers growth on the lead concentration and substrate temperature. Increasing Pb content the substrate temperature has to be increased to realize whisker growth via VLS.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 2011
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