Electrochemical Properties and Electrochromic Behaviors of the Sol–Gel Derived Tungsten Trioxide Thin Films
Electrochemical properties and electrochromic (EC) behaviors of the tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films on the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass slides have been studied. The thin films were prepared by simply annealing the drop casted tungsten ethoxide/ethanlol/water sol thin films. The effects of the annealing conditions on the thin film morphology, phase structure and the subsequent electrochemical properties and the electrochromic behaviors have been systematically studied. The morphology and crystalline structure of the WO3 thin films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The calcination conditions had a significant impact on the EC film structure. Thin film from 2-h 100 °C annealing exhibited an amorphous structure and evenly sized crystalline WO3 particles for the thin film with additional 2-h 200 °C annealing. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry (CC) and in situ spectroelectrochemistry methods were employed to study the electrochemical properties and electrochromic behaviors of these thin films in a propylene carbonate (PC) solution containing 1 M LiClO4. Even though it took 30 seconds for coloration and 54 seconds for bleaching process in the thin film from additional 2-h 200 °C annealing than those (16 and 27 s) of the thin film from 2-h 100 °C annealing, the thin film with additional 2-h 200 °C annealing demonstrated a better performance in terms of higher transmittance modulation (30.5% for the thin film with additional 2-h 200 °C annealing and 21.6% for thin film from 2-h 100 °C at 685 nm) and coloration efficiency (48.3 cm2 C–1 for the thin film with additional 2-h 200 °C annealing and 40.2 cm2 C–1 for thin film from 2-h 100 °C). The higher electrochemical activity and better cycling durability render it promising as smart windows for solar light control and energy saving applications.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 01 June 2013
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- ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT FOCUS is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed international research journal consolidating research activities in all experimental and theoretical aspects of energy and environment with an interdisciplinary approach. The research topics include the preparation and characterization of advanced functional materials and their utilization in various energy and environmental applications, to name a few; fuel cells, batteries, solar cells, light emitting diodes, solar cells, optoelectronic devices, thermoelectric, clean energy, bio-fuels and bio-refineries, supercapacitors, hydrogen energy (storage and generation), geothermal energy, nanogenerators, self-powered devices and systems, catalysis, biomass and bioenergy, static and dynamic energy conversion; energy efficiency and management, nuclear energy, fossil fuels, geothermal, wind energy, electrolysis, and photothermal devices, environmental science and technology (environmental chemistry, physics biology and engineering) including climate change, greenhouse gases and global warming, ecology, environmental toxicology, industrial wastewater and sewage treatment, geosciences, atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic environments, pollution and environmental control, hazardous substances, radioactive contamination, noise pollution, effects of air, water, and soil contaminations on human health, environmental public health policies, soil environmental management and technologies, environmental policies, rules and regulations, conservation of natural resources, and all aspects of theoretical modeling related with energy and environment.
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