A Real Time Observation of Phase Transition of Anatase TiO2 Nanotubes Into Rutile Nanoparticles by In-Situ Joule Heating Inside Transmission Electron Microscope
We report the in situ Joule heating induced phase transformation of anatase TiO2 nanotubes into rutile nanoparticles inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) probe. Under a bias heating of 10 V, the anatase TiO2 nanotube breaks into ultrafine anatase nanoparticles of average size between 5–10 nm. On further increasing the bias voltage to 20 V, the nanoclusters of anatase particles become prone to a solid state reaction and are grown into stable rutile nanoparticles of size ranging between 20–25 nm. The formation of rutile nanoparticles was confirmed by the observation of diffraction pattern and high resolution imaging of these particles, which corresponds to the tetragonal TiO2 rutile phase (a = 4.59 Å, c = 2.95 Å, P42/mnm).
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Document Type: Short Communication
Publication date: 01 December 2010
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