We report the in situ Joule heating induced phase transformation of anatase TiO2 nanotubes into rutile nanoparticles inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) probe. Under a bias heating of 10
V, the anatase TiO2 nanotube breaks into ultrafine anatase nanoparticles of average size between 5–10 nm. On further increasing the bias voltage to 20 V, the nanoclusters of anatase particles become prone to a solid state reaction and are grown into stable rutile nanoparticles
of size ranging between 20–25 nm. The formation of rutile nanoparticles was confirmed by the observation of diffraction pattern and high resolution imaging of these particles, which corresponds to the tetragonal TiO2 rutile phase (a = 4.59 Å, c = 2.95 Å,
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