Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Opportunistic Fungi: Efficient Root Symbionts for the Management of Plant Parasitic Nematodes
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and opportunistic fungi (OP) are the important groups of efficient root symbionts, which play a key role in the management of plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The AM fungi have the ability to increase plant growth by nutrient uptake and water absorption while opportunistic fungi produced some biologically active metabolites. In recent years, these root symbionts have been widely used for management of plant diseases caused by PPN in various crops because they not only have the capability to modify the quality and abundance of rhizosphere microflora but also alter the overall rhizosphere microbial activity. Beside this, these symbionts may also induce changes in the host root exudation pattern. Concerning the high cost of inorganic fertilizers and the negative effect of chemical pestides on the environment and human health, the mycorrhizal and opportunistic fungi are used as a potential tool for the management of plant diseases caused by plant parasitic nematodes. This review presents a cumulative effect of PPN on plant health and the interaction takes place between the PPN, AM and opportunistic fungi on various host systems. Recent cost effective technologies for mass propagation of these efficient symbionts at commercial scale for the field application are also discussed.
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Document Type: Review Article
Publication date: 2011-12-01
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