Acceptable Levels for Ingestion of Dimethylsilanediol in Water on the International Space Station
Authors: Ramanathan, Raghupathy; James, John T.; McCoy, Torin
Source: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Volume 83, Number 6, June 2012 , pp. 598-603(6)
Publisher: Aerospace Medical Association
Abstract:Ramanathan R, James JT, Mccoy T. Acceptable levels for ingestion of dimethylsilanediol in water on the International Space Station. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:598–603.
Introduction: Water is recovered aboard the International Space Station (ISS) from humidity condensate and treated urine. The product water is monitored for total organic carbon (TOC). In 2010 the TOC readings indicated that a new contaminant had entered the potable water and was steadily increasing toward the TOC screening limit of 3 mg · L−1. In a ground-based laboratory, chemists discovered that dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) was the principal new contaminant. As no standard existed for safe levels of DMSD in water, the Toxicology Office at Johnson Space Center was asked to set such a standard. Methods: The Toxicology Office used methods developed over the past decade, in collaboration with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology, for setting Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEGs). These methods require a thorough literature search and development of an acceptable concentration (AC) for each potential toxic effect, keeping in mind that the adverse effects that accompany spaceflight could increase toxicity for certain end points. Benchmark dose modeling was encouraged if sufficient data were available. The most sensitive AC becomes the driver for the SWEG. Results: Hematotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and possibly neurotoxicity were the most sensitive toxicological endpoints for DMSD. Conclusions: The SWEG for DMSD for 100 d of ingestion was set at 35 mg · L−1, which is equivalent to 9 mg · L−1 as TOC. This is well above the TOC SWEG of 3 mg · L−1 and the peak DMSD level of processed water observed on orbit, which was 2.2 mg · L−1 as TOC (8.5 mg · L−1 of DMSD).
Document Type: Short Communication
Publication date: June 1, 2012
- The peer-reviewed monthly journal, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine (ASEM) provides contact with physicians, life scientists, bioengineers, and medical specialists working in both basic medical research and in its clinical applications. It is the most used and cited journal in its field. ASEM is distributed to more than 80 nations.
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