Ejection Injury to the Spine in Small Aviators: Sled Tests of Manikins vs. Post Mortem Specimens
Authors: Salzar, Robert S.; Bolton, James R.; Crandall, Jeff R.; Paskoff, Glenn R.; Shender, Barry S.
Source: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Volume 80, Number 7, July 2009 , pp. 621-628(8)
Publisher: Aerospace Medical Association
Abstract:Salzar RS, Bolton JR, Crandall JR, Paskoff GR, Shender BS. Ejection injury to the spine in small aviators: sled tests of manikins vs. post mortem specimens. Aviat Space Environ Med 2009; 80:621-8.Introduction: This study presents the results of seven aerospace manikin and three post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) horizontal deceleration sled tests. The objective of this study was to establish a body of baseline data that examines the ability of small (fifth percentile) manikins to predict whole-body kinematics associated with aircraft ejection, and whether currently available head and neck injury criteria are applicable in these situations. Methods: Subjects were exposed to a short-duration local z-axis sled pulse while horizontally seated and restrained in an ejection seat. Test subjects included instrumented fifth percentile female and male manikins, and two small (163.8 cm, 48.3 kg; 143.5 cm, 48.6 kg) female and one small (166.2 cm, 54.3 kg) male PMHS. Results: The anterior (local x-axis) translations of the PMHS heads were less than those observed in the manikin tests, but the local z-axis translations of the PMHS heads were greater than those of the manikins. Z-axis translations of the manikins' T1 were generally similar to those of the PMHS T1, but the anterior x-axis translations of T1 were greater in the PMHS. The neck injury criterion (Nij) tended to under-predict observed injury (primarily ruptures of the posterior ligaments at C4-5, T2-3), and the Beam Criterion (BC) tended to over-predict observed injury for small occupants. The USN/USAF neck injury criteria (NIC) performed best in predicting the observed injuries. Discussion: Present manikin designs do not predict the kinematics of PMHS in ejection tests. Further refinement of existing injury criteria is required to accurately predict location and severity of ejection-induced injuries.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 2009-07-01
- The peer-reviewed monthly journal, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine (ASEM) provides contact with physicians, life scientists, bioengineers, and medical specialists working in both basic medical research and in its clinical applications. It is the most used and cited journal in its field. ASEM is distributed to more than 80 nations.
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