Minimizing Exposure to Passive Smoke in the Enclosed Environment of U.S. Submarines
Authors: Jackman, Robert P.; Willette, Perry N.; White, Debra; Krizek, Susan M.
Source: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Volume 75, Number 1, January 2004 , pp. 60-64(5)
Publisher: Aerospace Medical Association
Abstract:Jackman RP, Willette PN, White D, Krizek SM. Minimizing exposure to passive smoke in the enclosed environment of U.S. submarines. Aviat Space Environ Med 2004; 75:60–4.
Objective: This study was designed to determine which designated smoking area on a submarine, forward or aft, minimizes nonsmokers’ exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Methods: A survey was administered and urine tested by an enzyme-linked immunoassay for urinary cotinine before and during a 10 d underway. There were four groups tested; submariners on boats with forward or aft designated smoking areas, with each of these groups further divided into submariners whose watch is primarily forward or aft. Results: There were no significant differences in urine cotinine levels between submariners whose watches are primarily in the forward section as compared with those who work primarily aft. This was true for predeployment as compared with deployment levels and whether the designated smoking area was located forward or aft. Conclusion: Using cotinine as a marker, passive smoke exposure appears to be minimum. The location of the designated smoking area aboard U. S. Navy submarines does not appear to have any effect on urinary cotinine levels.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2004-01-01
- The peer-reviewed monthly journal, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine (ASEM) provides contact with physicians, life scientists, bioengineers, and medical specialists working in both basic medical research and in its clinical applications. It is the most used and cited journal in its field. ASEM is distributed to more than 80 nations.
- Information for Authors
- Subscribe to this Title
- Membership Information
- Information for Advertisers
- Submit Articles
- 2011 Annual Meeting and Event Information
- ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites