Novel characterization of the aerosol and gas-phase composition of aerosolized jet fuel
Authors: Tremblay, Raphael T.; Martin, Sheppard A.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.
Source: Inhalation Toxicology, Volume 22, Number 5, April 2010 , pp. 394-401(8)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:Few robust methods are available to characterize the composition of aerosolized complex hydrocarbon mixtures. The difficulty in separating the droplets from their surrounding vapors and preserving their content is challenging, more so with fuels, which contain hydrocarbons ranging from very low to very high volatility. Presented here is a novel method that uses commercially available absorbent tubes to measure a series of hydrocarbons in the vapor and droplets from aerosolized jet fuels. Aerosol composition and concentrations were calculated from the differential between measured total (aerosol and gas-phase) and measured gas-phase concentrations. Total samples were collected directly, whereas gas-phase only samples were collected behind a glass fiber filter to remove droplets. All samples were collected for 1 min at 400 ml min−1 and quantified using thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. This method was validated for the quantification of the vapor and droplet content from 4-h aerosolized jet fuel exposure to JP-8 and S-8 at total concentrations ranging from 200 to 1000 mg/m3. Paired samples (gas-phase only and total) were collected every ∼40 min. Calibrations were performed with neat fuel to calculate total concentration and also with a series of authentic standards to calculate specific compound concentrations. Accuracy was good when compared to an online GC-FID (gas chromatography–flame ionization detection) technique. Variability was 15% or less for total concentrations, the sum of all gas-phase compounds, and for most specific compound concentrations in both phases. Although validated for jet fuels, this method can be adapted to other hydrocarbon-based mixtures.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Environmental Health Science, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
Publication date: April 1, 2010