Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for acrylonitrile
Source: Inhalation Toxicology, Volume 21, Supplement 3 to issue 1, December 2009 , pp. 17-55(39)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:Application of Provisional Advisory Level (PAL) protocols was performed for acrylonitrile, as experimental data permitted. Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations of potential drinking water and inhalation exposures for the general public. For background on the PAL Program and a description of the methodology used in deriving PALs, the reader is referred to accompanying papers in this Supplement. Human data were limited to inhalation exposures. The animal experimental data set for this chemical was robust for inhalation and oral studies, with the exception of appropriate data for inhalation 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year PAL 3 values. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in October 2007. Oral 24-hour PALs for acrylonitrile are PAL 1 = 7 mg/L; PAL 2 = 23 mg/L; and PAL 3 = 88 mg/L. Oral 30-day and 90-day PALs are PAL 1 = 0.35 mg/L; PAL 2 = 7 mg/L; and PAL 3 = 17 mg/L. Oral 2-year PALs are PAL 1 = 0.35 mg/L; PAL 2 = 3.5 mg/L; and PAL 3 = 12 mg/L. Acrylonitrile inhalation PAL values for 24-hour exposure are PAL 1 = 0.17 ppm; PAL 2 = 3.5 ppm; and PAL 3 = 5.1 ppm; the 30-day and 90-day inhalation exposure values are PAL 1 = 0.15 ppm and PAL 2 = 0.60 ppm. The 2-year inhalation values are PAL 1 = 0.014 ppm and PAL 2 = 0.12 ppm. PAL 3 values for 30 days, 90 days, and 2 years are not recommended due to insufficient data.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: 1Toxicology and Hazard Assessment Group, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA 2: 2Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA 3: 3Inhalation Toxicology Associates, Savannah, Georgia, USA 4: 4National Homeland Security Research Center, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
Publication date: December 1, 2009