Evaluation of a novel inhalation exposure system to determine acute respiratory responses to tobacco and polymer pyrolysate mixtures in Swiss-Webster mice
Source: Inhalation Toxicology, Volume 21, Number 8, July 2009 , pp. 719-729(11)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:Modern cigarette production processes are highly automated and yield millions of cigarettes per day. The forming cigarette and its components contact many different materials in the production process, some of which may leave minute residues. The potential for small inclusions of non-cigarette materials such as wood, plastic, cardboard and other materials exists from the bulk handling and processing of tobacco, in spite of vigilant workers and numerous online systems designed to keep the tobacco stream clean. Currently, there are no published methods that describe an approach to evaluate the potential toxicological impact of these non-tobacco residues and inclusions on the biological activity from exposure to the complex mixture of tobacco smoke. There are, however, many methods which describe toxicological evaluation approaches for pure materials, particularly synthetic polymers. We used the Deutsche Institute fur Normung (DIN) 53-436 tube furnace and nose-only exposure chamber in combination to conduct pilot studies in Swiss-Webster mice in order to develop a standardized methodology for the evaluation of sensory irritation and other potentially useful biological endpoints for predicting any potential hazards. Sensory and/or pulmonary irritation was assessed based on respiratory function parameters using the ASTM E981-84 method described by Alarie (1966) in mice, exposed to test atmospheres of 100% tobacco pyrolysate or tobacco/polymer pyrolysate mixtures. Other biological evaluations included respiratory function parameters, clinical signs, body weights, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, carboxyhemoglobin, blood cyanide concentrations and histopathology of the respiratory tract. These pilot studies have demonstrated that such an approach can detect biological changes resulting from exposure to unique tobacco/polymer pyrolysates. Small differences were detected in the sensory irritation responses (respiratory function), activation state of pulmonary macrophages, and histopathological findings in the nose of mice exposed to 100% tobacco or tobacco/polymer pyrolysates. Analytical measurements were also performed in order to characterize the test atmospheric changes that could occur from inclusion of the polymer into the tobacco. These included DIN-generated wet total particulate matter (TPM) DIN-Generated wet TPM (DWTPM), nicotine, cyanide, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. We attempted to correlate analyte differences in the test atmospheres with the resulting biological findings in the mice. The results demonstrated that this approach could detect minimal toxicological effects in mice exposed to test atmospheres of 100% tobacco or 70%/30% tobacco/polymer pyrolysates.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Philip Morris USA, Research Center, Richmond, Virginia, USA 2: Battelle-Toxicology Northwest, Life Sciences Laboratory (LSL II), Richland, Washington, USA 3: Arcadis US Inc., Westlake Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
Publication date: July 2009