Chronic Nasal Instillation of Residual-Oil Fly Ash (ROFA) Induces Brain Lipid Peroxidation and Behavioral Changes in Rats
Source: Inhalation Toxicology, Volume 20, Number 9, July 2008 , pp. 795-800(6)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:Several epidemiological studies have linked particulate matter exposure to numerous adverse health effects on the respiratory, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems (Braga et al., 1999; Zanobetti et al., 2000; Anderson et al., 2001; Farhat et al., 2005). More recently, ambient levels of black carbon were associated to impaired cognitive function in children (Suglia et al., 2008), suggesting that the central nervous system (CNS) may be a target of air pollutants. The present study was conducted to (a) determine whether chronic residual oil fly ash (ROFA) exposure promotes behavioral changes and lipid peroxidation in rat brain areas, and (b) determine whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general antioxidant, prevents these effects. Forty-five-day-old male Wistar rats were exposed or not to ROFA by intranasal instillation and were treated or not with NAC (150 mg/kg) ip for 30 days. One day later, rats were submitted to the open field test to evaluate the motor/exploratory activities and emotionality followed by decapitation. Striatum and cerebellum were dissected to determine lipid peroxidation by the accumulation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). ROFA instillation induced an increase in lipid peroxidation level in striatum (p = .033) and cerebellum (p = .030), as compared with the control group. NAC treatment blocked these changes. ROFA promoted a decrease in the frequency of peripheral walking (p = .006) and a decrease in exploration (p = .001), which were not blocked by N-acetylcysteine. The present study provides evidence that toxic particles, administered by the respiratory route, induce oxidative stress in structures of the central nervous system, as well as behavioral alterations. The administration of NAC reduces lipid peroxidation at the striatum and cerebellum levels, but does not influence behavioral disturbances.
Document Type: Research article
Affiliations: 1: Post-Graduation Course in Medical Sciences and Laboratory of Oxidative Stress and Atmospheric Pollution, Fundacao Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil 2: Laboratory of Oxidative Stress and Atmospheric Pollution, Fundacao Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil 3: Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil 4: Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil 5: Post-Graduation Course in Medical Sciences, Fundacao Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil
Publication date: 2008-07-01