Decreased Lung Function After Inhalation of Ultrafine and Fine Particulate Matter During Exercise is Related to Decreased Total Nitrate in Exhaled Breath Condensate
Authors: Rundell, Kenneth; Slee, Josh; Caviston, Renee; Hollenbach, Amanda
Source: Inhalation Toxicology, Volume 20, Number 1, February 2008 , pp. 1-9(9)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:This study was designed to investigate PM1 inhalation during exercise on lung function, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), and total nitrate (NO3), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Inhalation of combustion-derived PM is associated with adverse respiratory health. A mechanistic action of PM on lung function is not defined; however, nitrosative/oxidative stress is likely. Prior to and after two 30-min exercise bouts 4-5 days apart, inhaling low (7382 ± 1727 particles cm- 3) or high (252,290 ± 77,529 particles cm- 3) PM1, 12 nonasthmatic males performed spirometry and eNO and EBC collection. Normal resting lung function did not change after low PM1 exercise. After high PM1 exercise, FEV1 and FEF25-75 fell significantly (p = .0005, p = .002) and was related to [PM1] (r = -.55, p = .005 and r =-.61, p = .002; respectively); 11- and 52-ml decreases were calculated for each 20,000 particles cm- 3 increase for FEV and FEF25-75. NO3 did not change after low PM1 exercise (30.5% increase), but significantly decreased by 43.8% after high PM1 exercise, and correlated with lung function changes (r = .63, and r = .54 for FEV1 and FEF25-75, respectively; p = .001 and p = .007). No change in GSNO was observed. Alveolar NO decreased after high PM1 conditions (p = .02); eNO pre-to-post difference was related to changes in FEV1 (r = .60, p = .002). MDA increased 40% after low PM exercise (NS) and increased 208% after high PM exercise (p = .06). Thus, high PM1 inhalation during exercise caused a reduced alveolar contribution to eNO; NO3 and eNO variables were decreased and were related to impaired lung function. Decreased NO3 and eNO may be due to superoxide/NO formation of peroxynitrite, resulting in lipid peroxidation.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 2008-02-01