Chronic Diesel Exhaust Exposures of Rats Demonstrate Concentration and Time-Dependent Effects on Pulmonary Inflammation
Authors: Ishihara, Yoko; Kagawa, Jun
Source: Inhalation Toxicology, Volume 15, Number 5, April 15 2003 , pp. 473-492(20)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:Long-term, repeated exposure to particles in air pollution increases the risk for chronic respiratory diseases and cardiorespiratory mortality. The biological linkages remain poorly understood in chronic exposure to particle matter. To elucidate and verify these linkages, we investigated long-term exposure to diesel emission with respect to dose dependence and the effect of components without particles from diesel emission in rats. Wistar rats were exposed to filtered air (C group), diesel exhaust at low (L group), medium (M group), and high level (H group), or at a medium concentration diesel exhaust without particulate matter (MG group), for 16 h/day, 6 days/wk, for 6, 12, 18, or 24 mo. Anesthetized animals were sacrificed and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from the lung and blood from the right ventricle were collected. Various biomarkers of inflammation and components of mucus and surfactant were determined. Changes in total cell counts and cell differentiation, total protein, mucus and surfactant components, and prostaglandin E2 in BAL fluid, but not biomarkers in plasma, showed statistical differences among the C, L, M, and H groups during the experimental period. The changes in these biomarkers in the H group were greater than those in the M group, whereas those in the L group showed no significant changes compared with those in the C group during the experimental period. The onset of significant changes in inflammatory cells and these biomarkers in BAL fluid for the M and H groups was at 6 to 12 mo of exposure. The maximum level was reached at 12 to 18 mo of exposure. Although BAL prostaglandin E2 decreased significantly at 6 mo of exposure in the M and H groups, this trend was not observed in the C and L groups. Animals exposed to a medium level of diesel exhaust without particulate matter showed significantly less inflammatory cells and various biomarkers in BAL fluid than animals exposed to the same level of diesel exhaust with particulate matter during the experimental period. These findings suggest that biological response to inhaled particles is aggravated during chronic exposure to diesel exhaust dose-dependently. Inflammation and overproduction of mucus and surfactant components reached a plateau at 12 or 18 mo of exposure during a 24-mo experimental period. No adverse effect of particles (less than 1.0 mg particles/m3 of diesel emission) was observed in these rats. However, our data suggest that particulate matter plays an important role during development of chronic lung injury induced by diesel emission exhaust.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Hygiene and Public Health (I), School of Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
Publication date: April 1, 2003