ACUTE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF INTRATRACHEALLY INSTILLED TITANIUM DIOXIDE WHISKERS COMPARED WITH NONFIBROUS TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND AMOSITE IN RATS
Authors: Ishihara, Yoko; Kyono, Hiroko; Kohyama, Norihiko; Otaki, Noriko; Serita, Fumio; Toya, Tadao; Kagawa, Jun
Source: Inhalation Toxicology, Volume 11, Number 2, 1 February 1999 , pp. 131-149(19)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:The dimensions of man-made mineral fiber whiskers are similar to those of some kinds of asbestos. Thus these mineral fibers raise the concern for potential health hazard for workers exposed in the occupational environments. This study was designed to define acute biological effects of intratracheally administered titanium dioxide whiskers (TO1) compared with nonfibrous titanium dioxide (TOP) and UICC amosite (Ams), and their relations to acute lung inflammation in rats. The observed geometric mean length (mum) and width ( mum) and geometric standard deviation are: TO1(2.1[2.0], 0.14[1.53]); Ams (4.3[3.3], 0.31[1.9]); and TOP (50 nm, 1-2 mum aggregates). Ten-week-old Wistar-Jcl male rats received a single tracheal injection of test materials at doses between 0.05 and 1.0 mg/rat. Control animals were injected with the same volume of saline. Lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected from rats on days 1, 3, and 7 after administration. In the group injected with TO1, total protein, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)/growth-regulated gene product (GRO), interleukin (IL) 1 , and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) increased on day 1. Subsequently, total elastolytic activity and fucose levels in BAL increased by day 3. All parameters, except for fucose in BAL, recovered to the normal levels. Animals in the Ams group showed increased total protein and CINC/GRO and decreased total elastolytic activity in a dose-dependent manner on day 1. The fucose level increased on day 3 in the Ams group. All parameters returned to their control levels on day 7. Animals in the TOP group did not show significant changes any of parameters during the experimental period. Gene expression of TNF- and mono cyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 3 in the lung increased dose-dependently in the animals treated with the three materials. The mRNAs for eotaxin and MIP-1 were overexpressed in the lung of animals treated with Ams and TO1, while RANTES mRNA was overexpressed dose-dependently in the lung of animals treated with Ams on day 1. Onset of inflammatory response was more rapid in the Ams group than the TO1 group. Recovery of the fucose level in BAL was slower in the TO1 group than in the Ams group, though we observed similar histopathological changes in the lung of animals with TO1 or Ams. We conclude that whisker-induced acute biological effects in the lung may be related to the shape of the whiskers and not to their chemical composition or surface crystal structure, showing biological effects similar to those of UICC amosite.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 1999-02-01