A CENTRIFUGAL PARTICLE CONCENTRATOR FOR USE IN INHALATION TOXICOLOGY
Authors: Gordon, Terry; Gerber, H.; Fang, Ching Ping; Chen, Lung Chi
Source: Inhalation Toxicology, Volume 11, Number 1, 1 January 1999 , pp. 71-87(17)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:Epidemiologic studies have provided strong evidence that episodic exposure to ambient particulate matter is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality. These adverse effects have been demonstrated at concentrations far below the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), and thus, the biological plausibility of these effects has been questioned. For the purpose of exposing test animals to relevant and reproducible exposure concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) , we have developed a simple and inexpensive concentrator system that can concentrate ambient particles 10-fold. A high-volume blower is used to deliver ambient air to the inlet manifold of a centrifugal concentrator and the entrained particles travel along a concentric annulus formed by a stationary solid outer cylinder and a porous inner cylinder rotating at high speed (up to 12,500 rpm). Suction applied at one end of the porous shaft causes the dispersion medium (air) to pass through the porous cylinder and into the shaft. Since the rotational velocity of airborne particles is comparable to that of the rotating cylinder near its surface, the particles move radially outward due to the centrifugal force, in addition to their motion laterally along the cylinder and inward due to the suction of air into the rotating porous cylinder. The particles reach their highest concentration near the outlet manifold, where they enter the exposure chamber under positive pressure (~0.4 cm H2O). Except for coarse particle loss due to impaction and diffusional loss of ultrafine particles in the concentrator, the increase in particle concentration is the ratio of the flow rates for the inlet air and the air delivered to the exposure chamber. We have used the centrifugal concentrator to deliver concentrated ambient urban PM to a nose-only exposure chamber and examined the concentrating effect across ambient particle sizes.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 1999-01-01