XENOBIOTIC-METABOLIZING ENZYMES IN THE CANINE RESPIRATORY TRACT
Authors: Maier, K.L.; Wippermann, U.; Leuschel, L.; Josten, M.; Pflugmacher, S.; Schroder, P.; Sandermann, H.; Takenaka, S.; Ziesenis, A.; Heyder, J.
Source: Inhalation Toxicology, Volume 11, Number 1, 1 January 1999 , pp. 19-35(17)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:Airway epithelial surface is the primary target of airborne pollutants. To estimate the distribution of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the respiratory tract of dogs, epithelia from different airway sites of four animals were analyzed for metabolism of sulfite (sulfite oxidase) and formaldehyde (formaldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase). In addition, glutathione S -transferases were assayed using several model substrates. Enzyme activities were compared with those found in liver parenchyma. The activity of sulfite oxidase was found to be comparable in nose, trachea, and proximal and medium bronchi, but appeared to be lower in lung parenchyma of most animals. In contrast, hepatic sulfite oxidase activity of these animals was substantially higher compared to that in airway epithelia. The activity of glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) appeared to be highest in nose and lowest in distal bronchi, lung, and liver parenchyma. The distribution pattern of the glutathione-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldDH) in the respiratory tract was different from that of FDH. Levels of AldDH were about 5- to 10-fold lower than those of FDH, suggesting that AldDH is of minor importance for pulmonary formaldehyde detoxification. With regard to ethanol detoxification by a class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), no measurable enzyme activity could be detected at most respiratory sites contrary to the high activity found in liver parenchyma. Regarding glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) , different distributions of enzyme activities were found in the large and small airways when using three substrates. The 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB)-related activities in the cytosolic frac tion of the upper (nose, trachea) and lower airways (proximal, medium and distal bronchi) were higher than those in the microsomal fraction. Interestingly, there was no difference between CDNB-related activities in the cytosolic and microsomal fraction of the liver. Highest cytosolic activities were found in the nose, and were comparable to those detected in the liver parenchyma. The cytosolic 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB)-related activities in the nose, proximal bronchi, and lung parenchyma were appeared to be markedly higher than those in trachea and medium and distal bronchi, while the microsomal activities were not detectable at most respiratory sites. In contrast, distinctly higher activities were measured in both fractions of liver tissue. Cytosolic 1,2- epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)-propane (EPNP)-related activities were present in upper and lower airways including lung parenchyma at comparable levels, while in liver tissue the mean activities were distinctly lower. No EPNP-related activities were found in the microsomal fractions. In conclusion, most xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes investigated in this study could be detected in epithelia of various respiratory sites. The most outstanding result revealed higher levels of FDH activity in the nose and downstream to the medium bronchi in comparison to those found in the small airways, lung, and liver tissue. Similarly, the EPNP-related GST exhibited a distinctly higher activity at all respiratory sites compared to the activity in liver tissue, suggesting a different regulation of this enzyme in lung and liver.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 1999-01-01