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Association between venous thromboembolism and plasma levels of both soluble fibrin and plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 in 170 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty

Authors: Yukizawa, Yohei1; Inaba, Yutaka2; Watanabe, Shin-ichiro3; Yajima, Satoshi3; Kobayashi, Naomi2; Ishida, Takashi1; Iwamoto, Naoyuki1; Choe, Hyonmin1; Saito, Tomoyuki1

Source: Acta Orthopaedica, Volume 83, Number 1, February 2012 , pp. 14-21(8)

Publisher: Informa Healthcare

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Abstract:

Background and purpose Markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis, such as soluble fibrin (SF), D-dimer, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), have been developed in order to determine thrombotic tendency. We investigated whether these markers could be used to diagnose venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the early phase after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Methods This prospective study involved 2 groups: an intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) group (67 patients who underwent IPC only as prophylaxis for VTE) and a fondaparinux (FPX) group (103 patients who received IPC and FPX postoperatively). Plasma levels of SF and PAI-1 were measured on postoperative day 1. To diagnose postoperative VTE, multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and duplex ultrasonography (US) were performed on postoperative day 7.

Results VTE was detected postoperatively in 17 cases in the IPC group (25%) and in 8 cases in the FPX group (6%). In the IPC group, plasma levels of SF and PAI-1 were higher in patients with VTE (p < 0.01) than in those without VTE. On the other hand, in the FPX group there were no differences in the levels of SF or PAI-1 measured before administration of FPX on postoperative day 1. The diagnostic criterion of an increase in SF or PAI-1 above the cutoff level (19.8 µg/mL and 53.5 ng/mL, respectively) provided a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 67% in the IPC group. In addition, when this criterion was applied to FPX patients, 7 of the 8 patients with VTE met the criterion, and there was a negative agreement rate of 48/49.

Interpretation Screening using the cutoff levels of SF and PAI-1 may be useful and shows high sensitivity in predicting postoperative VTE in the early phase after THA.

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17453674.2011.652886

Affiliations: 1: 1Musculoskeletal Science, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine 2: 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University School of Medicine 3: 3Department of Clinical Laboratories, Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama, Japan

Publication date: February 1, 2012

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