Volumetric umbilical artery blood flow: comparison of the normal versus the single umbilical artery cord
Authors: Goldkrand, J. W.; Pettigrew, C.; Lentz, S. U.; Clements, S. P.; Bryant, J. L.; Hodges, J.
Source: Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Volume 10, Number 2, 1 April 2001 , pp. 116-121(6)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:Objective: This was a study of the volumetric blood flow in single umbilical artery (SUA) cords as compared to three-vessel cords. Hypothesis: SUA flow will be twice that of an artery in a normal cord.
Methods: We studied 276 patients (24 SUA, 252 normal cord) at 18-40 weeks' gestation utilizing gray-scale and color Doppler. Flow, flow/kg, velocity, artery diameter, Doppler velocimetry indices, estimated fetal weight (EFW) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) were compared. All fetuses were anatomically and cytogenetically normal.
Results: Blood flow increased with advancing gestation and the SUA volume was twice that in the normal cord artery. Flow/kg decreased for both cords, with the SUA values twice those of normal cords. Arterial diameter and velocity increased, but to a greater degree in SUA. Velocimetry, although in the normal range, decreased progressively with the resistance indices always lower in the SUA cord. EFW and AFI were the same for both groups.
Conclusion: Volumetric blood and its components were measured indirectly with ultrasound. The SUA cord artery carried twice the blood volume of an artery in a three-vessel cord. Other flow parameters changed appropriately to explain the increased flow. For the anatomically normal fetus with SUA there was no increase in intrauterine growth restriction.
Document Type: Original Article
Affiliations: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, Georgia, USA
Publication date: April 1, 2001