Pharmacotherapy of osteoporosis in men
Author: Diamond, Terrence H
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, Volume 6, Number 1, 1 January 2005 , pp. 45-58(14)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:Osteofragility fractures occur in men due to a compromise in bone strength, coupled with either trauma or a fall. In men ≥ 65Âyears of age, osteoporosis can be defined as bone mineral density (at the proximal femur, spine or distal forearm) of 2.5 standard deviations or less below the mean for a normal young adult man, using a male reference database (i.e., T-score value of ≤Â-2.5) [1,2]. In men 50 – 65Âyears of age, a similar definition is used if other risk factors for a fracture are present. Osteoporosis is increasingly recognised in men [3-11]. One in three men aged > 60Âyears will suffer an osteoporotic fracture . Spinal fractures occur in 5% of men (compared with 16% of women) and hip fractures in 6% of men (compared with 18% of women) > 50Âyears of age . The risk of hip fracture increases by ∼ 2.6-fold for each standard deviation decrease in bone density measured at the hip [12,13]. At present, the life expectancy for men has increased to a mean age of 76.8Âyears. With men now living longer, they can be expected to develop multiple coexisting illnesses contributing to bone loss and an increased likelihood of falling and fragility fractures [5,14,15]. It is estimated that 30 – 60% of men presenting with spinal fractures have another illness contributing to their bone disease [4,6-10,16-20]. The ideal therapy for men with osteoporosis should include an intervention which significantly increases bone strength and reduces fracture rates, is safe, easy to administer and economical. This review outlines the c-urrent treatment strategies available for men with osteoporosis.
Keywords: alendronate; bisphosphonate therapy; calcitriol; cyclical etidronate; fracture; osteoporosis in men; pamidronate; parathyroid hormone; raloxifene; risedronate; testosterone; vitamin D; zoledronic acid
Document Type: Review Article
Publication date: January 1, 2005