Nanopharmaceuticals to target antifilarials: a comprehensive review
Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, Volume 10, Number 5, May 2013 , pp. 665-678(14)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:Introduction: Currently emphasized conventional chemotherapies for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are imperfect due to unfocused targeting of poorly water-soluble antifilarial drugs. The profound location of drug targets (filarial parasites or wolbachia) within the complex anatomy of lymphatic tissues often necessitates prolonged treatment schedules with high doses leading to undesired side effects and poor patient compliance. Therefore, we need to reformulate antifilarial drugs taking the advantages of nanotechnology through a wide range of nanomedical carriers, which improve drug efficacy, increase bioavailability, and diminish toxicity.
Areas covered: Connotations of drug delivery systems (DDSs) to target lymphatic filaroids or wolbachia and systemic microfilaria have been discussed. The potentials of liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles for the treatment of LF are highlighted. Various critical factors, viz optimal size range, surface properties, preferred pH, mechanism of reticuloendothelial avoidance, and control of the release of antifilarial agents for safe elimination of parasites, are enclosed to design a novel DDS for LF. The review of nanotechnological approaches to improve antifilarial chemotherapy will help to resolve existing technological gaps.
Expert opinion: Precincts in the antifilarial discovery programs can never be overcome by conventional methods. Nanomedicine encompasses wide-range solution for each single problem (i.e., from poor solubility to nonspecific targeting of antifilarial agents) for the cure of LF at low costs and may reduce the economic burden of LF diseases. Advances in nanotechnology loom will certainly come forward as silver bullets in the near future for quick diagnosis, control, and elimination of this tropically neglected disease.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: 4 All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Department of Pathology, New Delhi-110029, India 2: 5 Hamdard University (Jamia Hamdard), Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, New Delhi-110062, India
Publication date: 2013-05-01