From nose to brain: understanding transport capacity and transport rate of drugs
Authors: Wu, Hongbing; Hu, Kaili; Jiang, Xinguo
Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, Volume 5, Number 10, October 2008 , pp. 1159-1168(10)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Abstract:The unique relationship between nasal cavity and cranial cavity tissues in anatomy and physiology makes intranasal delivery to the brain feasible. An intranasal delivery provides some drugs with short channels to bypass the blood–brain barrier (BBB), especially for those with fairly low brain concentrations after a routine delivery, thus greatly enhancing the therapeutic effect on brain diseases. In the past two decades, a good number of encouraging outcomes have been reported in the treatment of diseases of the brain or central nervous system (CNS) through nasal administration. In spite of the significant merit of bypassing the BBB, direct nose-to-brain delivery still bears the problems of low efficiency and volume for capacity due to the limited volume of the nasal cavity, the small area ratio of olfactory mucosa to nasal mucosa and the limitations of low dose and short retention time of drug absorption. It is crucial that selective distribution and retention time of drugs or preparations on olfactory mucosa should be enhanced so as to increase the direct delivery efficiency. In this article, we first briefly review the nose-to-brain transport pathways, before detailing the impacts on them, followed by a comprehensive summary of effective methods, including formulation modification, agglutinant-mediated transport and a brain-homing, peptide-mediated delivery based on phage display screening technique, with a view to providing a theoretic reference for elevating the therapeutic effects on brain diseases.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: October 1, 2008