Advanced delivery of Ciclosporin A: present state and perspective

Authors: Liu, Hongzhuo; Wang, Yongjun; Li, Sanming

Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, Volume 4, Number 4, July 2007 , pp. 349-358(10)

Publisher: Informa Healthcare

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Ciclosporin A has been used as an immunosuppressor for organ transplantation and other autoimmune disorders for a number of years. Its poor biopharmaceutical characteristics of low solubility and permeability makes the uphill task of designing delivery systems even more challenging for the drug delivery scientist. Works have been performed to investigate administration through various body routes, and have employed approaches that use as emulsions, microspheres, nanoparticles, liposomes, physical and chemical penetration enhancers. Although progress has been made, there is still room for improvement in the application of ciclosporin A, as none of these formulations is ideal.

Keywords: ciclosporin A; dermal delivery; ocular delivery; oral delivery; parenteral delivery; pulmonary delivery

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1Pharmaceutical University of Shenyang, School of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang 110016, P. R. China, Email:

Publication date: July 1, 2007

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