Failed individual and sequential instrumental vaginal delivery: contributing risk factors and maternal–neonatal complications
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Volume 82, Number 7, July 2003 , pp. 642-648(7)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
To identify the risk factors for failed instrumental vaginal delivery, and to compare maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with failed individual and sequential instruments used. Design.
A retrospective case-control study. Methods.
From January 1995 to June 2001, there were 39 508 live births at >37 weeks' gestation of which 2628 (6.7%) instrumental vaginal deliveries were performed, 1723 (4.4%) were vacuum extractions and 905 (2.3%) were forceps. A total of 155/2628 (5.9%) patients who had failed instrumental delivery were matched with 204 patients who had successful instrumental delivery. The patients were divided into five groups. Group I (n = 129) had failed vacuum extraction, group II (n = 13) failed forceps, group III (n = 13) failed both (i.e. failed attempt at both instruments sequentially), group IV (n = 138) had successful vacuum extraction and group V (n = 66) successful forceps. Results.
The failure rate for vacuum extractions 129/1723 (7.5%) was significantly higher than that for forceps 13/905 (1.4%) [odds ratio (OR) = 5.6, 95% CI 3–10.3]. There were no significant differences in all maternal complications (25.5% vs. 26.6%) between vacuum (groups I and IV) and forceps (groups II and V) assisted deliveries. There were more maternal complications in group III (46.2%) than in groups I (35.7%), II (23.1%) and V (27.3%) that did not reach statistical significance but were significantly higher than in group IV (15.9%, OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2–16.9). There was a significantly higher rate of all fetal complications in group III [11/13 (84.6%)] than in groups I [69/129 (53.5%)], II [7/13 (53.8%)], IV [35/138 (25.4%)] and V [22/66 (33.3%)] (OR = 4.8, 95% CI 0.9–19.9). Conclusions.
Applying the instrument at ≤0 fetal station, nulliparous women, history of previous cesarean section and fetal head other than occipitoanterior position were risk factors for failed instrumental delivery. Sequential use of instrumental delivery carries a significantly higher neonatal morbidity than when a single instrument is used.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: July 2003