Climate Variation and the Rise and Fall of an Andean Civilization
Source: Quaternary Research, Volume 47, Number 2, March 1997 , pp. 235-248(14)
Publisher: Academic Press
Abstract:Paleolimnological and archaeological records that span 3500 years from Lake Titicaca and the surrounding Bolivian-Peruvian altiplano demonstrate that the emergence of agriculture (ca. 1500 B.C.) and the collapse of the Tiwanaku civilization (ca. A.D. 1100) coincided with periods of abrupt, profound climate change. The timing and magnitude of climate changes are inferred from stratigraphic evidence of lake-level variation recorded in 14 C-dated lake-sediment cores. Paleo-lake levels provide estimates of drainage basin water balance. Archaeological evidence establishes spatial and temporal patterns of agricultural field use and abandonment. Prior to 1500 B.C., aridity in the altiplano precluded intensive agriculture. During a wetter period from 1500 B.C. to A.D. 1100, the Tiwanaku civilization and its immediate predecessors developed specialized agricultural methods that stimulated population growth and sustained large human settlements. A prolonged drier period (ca. A.D. 1100-1400) caused declining agricultural production, field abandonment, and cultural collapse.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138 2: Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, 1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, Illinois, 60637 3: Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Florida, 7922 N.W. 71st Street, Gainesville, Florida, 32653 4: Limnological Research Center, University of Minnesota, 220 Pillsbury Hall, 310 Pillsbury Drive S.E., Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455 5: Department of Geology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611
Publication date: March 1, 1997