Practical Methods for Solid-State NMR Distance Measurements on Large Biomolecules: Constant-Time Rotational Resonance

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Simple modifications of the rotational resonance experiment substantially reduce the total experimental time needed to measure weak homonuclear dipolar couplings, a critical factor for achieving routine internuclear distance measurements in large biomolecular systems. These modifications also address several problems cited in the literature. Here we introduce a constant-time rotational resonance experiment that eliminates the need for control spectra to correct for effects from variable RF heating, particularly critical for accurate long-distance measurements. This reduces the total number of experiments needed by as much as a factor of 2. Other improvements incorporated include achieving selective inversion with a delay rather than a weak pulse (P. R. Costa et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 10487–10493, 1997), which we observe results in the elimination of oscillations in peak intensities for short mixing time points. This reduces the total experiment time in two ways. First, there is no longer a need to average different “zero”-time points (S. O. Smith et al., Biochemistry 33, 6334–6341, 1994) to correct for intensity variations. Second, short-mixing-time lineshape differences observed in large membrane-bound proteins only appear with the weak-pulse inversion and not when using the delay inversion. Consistent lineshapes between short and long mixing times permit the use of a single spectrum for subtraction of natural abundance background signals from all labeled-protein time points. Elimination of these effects improves the accuracy and efficiency of rotational resonance internuclear distance measurements.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, 01003

Publication date: August 1, 1999

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