Hexagonal shaped ice spicules in frozen antifreeze protein solutions
Source: Cryobiology, Volume 44, Number 3, June 2002 , pp. 240-250(11)
Publisher: Academic Press
Abstract:In the presence of antifreeze proteins from both Antarctic and Arctic fishes, water freezes in the form of long c-axis spikes or spicular-like crystals. Transmission electron microscopy of the Pt/C replicas of the freeze fractured spicular ice in a small capillary revealed the presence of many hexagonally shaped structures whose cross-sectional dimensions were between 0.5 and 10 m. Well-defined parallel faces were associated with most fractured and etched spicules. When fracture planes occurred near the tip of a spicule, well-defined pyramidal faces were apparent. Steps were sometimes associated with these pyramidal spicular crystal faces. On some of the replicas obvious roughening of certain crystal faces of the spicule was observed, suggesting that the antifreeze proteins may have adsorbed to those faces.
© 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Physiology, Medical School, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin, New Zealand 2: Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 3: Department of Animal Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA
Publication date: June 1, 2002