Cold Hardiness Adaptations of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella

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Abstract:

The cold hardiness adaptations of natural and laboratory reared populations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, were examined. Hemolymph, gut, and whole body supercooling points (SCPs), 24-h LT50s, polyhydroxy alcohol concentrations, hemolymph freezing points, and hemolymph melting points were determined. Nondiapausing codling moth larvae do not have appreciable levels of ice nucleators in the hemolymph or gut. Whole body supercooling points were higher than hemolymph supercooling points. For nondiapausing larvae, LT50s were significantly higher than both the whole body and the hemolymph supercooling points, indicating the presence of chill sensitivity. As the larvae left the food source and spun a cocoon, both hemolymph and whole body SCPs decreased. Diapause destined larvae had significantly lower hemolymph SCPs than nondiapausing larvae, but whole body SCPs were not significantly different from nondiapausing larvae of the same age. The LT50s of diapause destined and diapausing larvae were significantly lower than that of nondiapausing larvae. Codling moths are freezing intolerant, with LT50s close to the average whole body supercooling point in diapause destined and diapausing larvae. The overwintering, diapausing larvae effectively supercool to avoid lethal freezing by removal of ice nucleators from the gut and body without appreciable increase of antifreeze agents such as polyols or antifreeze proteins.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: USDA-ARS, Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, 5230 Konnowac Pass Road, Wapato, Washington, 98951, U.S.A.

Publication date: February 1, 1999

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