Physical and Hygroscopic Properties of Makhana
Author: Jha, S.N.
Source: Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, Volume 72, Number 2, February 1999 , pp. 145-150(6)
Publisher: Academic Press
Abstract:Makhana is the popped expanded kernel of the gorgon nut (Euryale ferox) and is used as a delicious food in India. Presently, it is sorted, graded and used as an ingredient of various ready-to-eat products. High volumetric expansion of makhana increases transport cost and makes it too expensive in distant places. Makhana thus requires further processing to get some value-added products of minimum volume. To develop any kind of product and mechanized system for their production, physical properties are required. Furthermore, since makhana is a seasonal and regional crop its storage conditions are also needed for keeping it appropriately at processing centres. Physical properties of makhana at moisture contents ranging from 5 to 20% (dry basis) and equilibrium moisture content at relative humidities ranging from 11·2 to 88% at temperature 30°C were determined using standard techniques. Physical properties were found to be: test weight (weight of 1000 makhana) 286 to 384 g; bulk density 56·5–84·6 kg/m3; particle density 105–240·6 kg/m3; porosity 29·4–48·9%; angle of repose 33–35·6°; and static coefficient of friction 0·596–0·82 and 0·493–0·684 on galvanized iron and stainless steel, respectively. The equilibrium moisture content of makhana was found to be between 11·5 and 58·9% (dry basis) within the ranges of variables studied.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Dairy Engineering Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Harayana, 132 001, India
Publication date: February 1, 1999