Determination of Dialkyl Phosphates as Breakdown Products of Organophosphorus Insecticides in Fruit Juices by HPTLC with Fluorescence Detection
Abstract:Dialkyl phosphates (DAP) are common degradation products of organophosphorus pesticides that are used as urinary biomarkers for human exposure. An HPTLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of DAP in fruit juices, i.e., dimethyl phosphate (DMP), dimethyl thiophosphate (DMTP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), and diethyl thiophosphate (DETP). Dibutyl phosphate (DBP) was used as an internal standard. The method was based on precipitation of fruit acids in the presence of barium chloride and acetonitrile and liquidliquid extraction with acetonitrilediethyl ether. Extracted DAP were derivatized with 1-(bromoacetyl)pyrene (BAP), and the BAP derivatives separated on HPTLC amino plates with dichloromethane as the mobile phase. Densitometry was performed by measurement of fluorescence at 366/>400 nm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) values were between 0.8 and 1.4 ng/zone. Fluorescence enhancement was achieved by dipping the plate into a paraffin oil solution, increasing the sensitivity and resulting in an LOQ of 0.50.6 ng/zone. Repeatabilities with relative standard deviations of 3.5 (n = 5, at 1520 ng/zone) and coefficients of correlation of 0.9999 were highly satisfactory for rapid trace analysis of DAP in the fruit juices by HPTLC. The mean recoveries from apple juice spiked at 0.5 mg/L were 74, 83, 70, and 57 for DMP, DEP, DMTP, and DETP, respectively. If an application volume of 5 L of apple juice extract was applied, the LOQ in apple juice was 300 g/L. However, this can be lowered by application of higher volumes (up to 50 L) or a more concentrated derivatization batch.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrae 28, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany.
Publication date: 2009-05-28
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- The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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