Direct Method for Determination of Sudan I in FD&C Yellow No. 6 and D&C Orange No. 4 by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography
Abstract:A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine parts-per-million and higher levels of Sudan I, 1-(phenylazo)-2-naphthalenol, in the disulfo monoazo color additive FD&C Yellow No. 6 and in a related monosulfo monoazo color additive, D&C Orange No. 4. Sudan I, the corresponding unsulfonated monoazo dye, is a known impurity in these color additives. The color additives are dissolved in water and methanol, and the filtered solutions are directly chromatographed, without extraction or concentration, by using gradient elution at 0.25 mL/min. Calibrations from peak areas at 485 nm were linear. At a 99 confidence level, the limits of determination were 0.008 g Sudan I/mL (0.4 ppm) in FD&C Yellow No. 6 and 0.011 g Sudan I/mL (0.00011) in D&C Orange No. 4. The confidence intervals were 0.202 0.002 g Sudan I/mL (10.1 0.1 ppm) near the specification level for Sudan I in FD&C Yellow No. 6 and 20.0 0.2 g Sudan I/mL (0.200 0.002) near the highest concentration of Sudan I found in D&C Orange No. 4. A survey was conducted to determine Sudan I in 28 samples of FD&C Yellow No. 6 from 17 international manufacturers over 3 years, and in a pharmacology-tested sample. These samples were found to contain undetected levels (16 samples), 0.59.7 ppm Sudan I (0.010.194 g Sudan I/mL in analyzed solutions; 11 samples including the pharmacology sample), and 10 ppm Sudan I (0.2 g Sudan I/mL; 2 samples). Analyses of 21 samples of D&C Orange No. 4 from 8 international manufacturers over 4 years found Sudan I at undetected levels (8 samples), 0.0005 to <0.005 Sudan I (0.05 to <0.5 g Sudan I/mL in analyzed solutions; 3 samples, including a pharmacology batch), 0.005 to <0.05 Sudan I (0.5 to <5 g Sudan I/mL; 9 samples), and 0.18 Sudan I (18 g Sudan I/mL; 1 sample).
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Office of Cosmetics and Colors, HFS-106, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy, College Park, MD 20740.
Publication date: September 1, 2007
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- The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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