A collaborative trial was conducted to validate an analytical approach comprising method procedures for determination of milk fat and the detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) in milk chocolate. The whole approach is based on (1) comprehensive databases
covering the triacylglycerol composition of a wide range of authentic milk fat, cocoa butter, and CBE samples and 947 gravimetrically prepared mixtures thereof; (2) the availability of a certified cocoa butter reference material for calibration; (3) an evaluation algorithm, which
allows reliable quantitation of the milk fat content in chocolate; (4) a subsequent correction to take account of the triacylglycerols derived from milk fat; (5) mathematical expressions to detect the presence of CBEs in milk chocolate; and (6) a multivariate statistical
formula to quantitate the amount of CBEs in milk chocolate. Twelve laboratories participated in the validation study. CBE admixtures were detected down to a level of 0.5 g CBE/100 g milk chocolate, without false-positive or -negative results. The applied quantitation model performed well at
the statutory limit of 5 CBE addition to milk chocolate, with a prediction error of 0.7, and HorRat values ranging from 0.8 to 1.5. The relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) values for quantitation of CBEs in analyses of chocolate fat solutions ranged from 2.2 to 3.8 and for
analyses of real chocolate samples, from 4.1 to 4.7, demonstrating that the whole approach, based solely on chocolate fat blends, is applicable to real milk chocolate samples.
Document Type: Research Article
European Commission, Directorate-General Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Food Safety and Quality Unit, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel, Belgium.
Publication date: September 1, 2007
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