Use of a Novel Medium, the Ionic Liquid 1-Butyl-3-Trimethylsilylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate, for LiquidLiquid Extraction of Lead in Water and Its Determination by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

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Abstract:

The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-trimethylsilylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, abbreviated as [C4tmsim][PF6], was developed as a novel medium for liquidliquid extraction of lead(II) in water, in which dithizone was used as a metal chelator to form a neutral leaddithizone complex. Under optimal conditions, the complex was extracted into the [C4tmsim][PF6] phase from aqueous solution and back-extracted with nitric acid solution into the aqueous phase that was used directly for the subsequent determination of Pb. The system using the ionic liquid demonstrated good extraction performance; the extraction and back-extraction efficiencies were 99.8 and 99.7%, respectively, for Pb(II) at 20 g/L. The above procedure, including the extraction and back-extraction, was used to enrich trace levels of Pb(II) in a relatively large volume of water samples (1000 mL water), and an enrichment factor of 400 was obtained. The enrichment coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was successfully applied to the determination of Pb in water. The calibration graph was linear at levels near the detection limits up to 100 ng/L Pb(II). The limits of quantitation and detection for lead in real water samples were 2.5 and 1.0 ng/L, respectively. Lead recoveries of 96.2103.8% from spiked samples demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Southern Yangtze University, College of Chemical and Materials Engineering, 170 Huihe Rd, Wuxi 214036, People's Republic of China.

Publication date: July 1, 2007

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  • The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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