Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors for Detection of PathogenicMicroorganisms: Strategies to Secure Food and Environmental Safety
Authors: Bergwerff, Aldert A; Van Knapen, Frans
Source: Journal of AOAC International, Volume 89, Number 3, May 2006 , pp. 826-831(6)
Publisher: AOAC International
Abstract:This review describes the exploitation of exclusively optical surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors for the direct and indirect detection of pathogenic microorganisms in food chains and the environment. Direct detection is, in most cases, facilitated by the use of defined monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies raised against (a part of) the target pathogenic microorganisms. The antibodies were immobilized to a solid phase of the sensor to capture the microbe from the sample. Alternatively, antibodies were used in an inhibition-like assay involving incubation with the target organism prior to analysis of nonbound antibodies. The free immunoglobins were screened on a sensor surface coated with either purified antigens or with Fc or Fab binding antibodies. Discussed examples of these approaches are the determination of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. Another direct detection strategy involved SPR analysis of polymerase chain reaction products of Shiga toxin-2 genes reporting the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in human stool. Metabolic products have been exploited as biomarkers for the presence of amicrobial agent, such as enterotoxin B and a virulence factor for the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus suis, respectively. Indirect detection, on the other hand, is performed by analysis of a humoral immune response of the infected animal or human. By immobilization of specific antigenic structures, infections with Herpes simplex and human immunodeficiency viruses, Salmonella and Treponema pallidum bacteria, and Schistosoma spp. parasites were revealed using human, avian, and porcine sera and avian eggs. Bound antibodies were easily isotyped using an SPR biosensor to reveal the infection history of the individual. Discussed studies show the recent recognition of the suitability of this type of instrument for (rapid) detection of health-threatening microbes to food and environmental microbial safety.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 2006-05-01
- The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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