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Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine, 8-Chlorotheophylline, and Chlorphenoxamine Hydrochloride in Ternary Mixtures by Ratio-Spectra Zero-Crossing First-Derivative Spectrophotometric and Chemometric Methods

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A ratio-spectra zero-crossing first-derivative spectrophotometric method and 2 chemometric methods have been used for the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures of caffeine (A), 8-chlorotheophylline (B), and chlorphenoxamine hydrochloride (C) in bulk powder and dosage forms. In the ratio-spectra zero-crossing first-derivative spectrophotometric technique (1DD), calibration curves were linear in the range of 4–20 μg/mL for A, B, and C (r = 0.9992, 0.9994, and 0.9976, respectively). The measurements were carried out at 212, 209.2, and 231.4 nm for A, B, and C, respectively. The detection limits for A, B, and C were calculated to be 0.24, 0.34, and 0.13 μg/mL, and the percentage recoveries were 99.1 ± 0.89, 100.1 ± 0.95, and 100.1 ± 1.0, respectively. Two chemometric methods, namely, the partial least-squares (PLS) model and the principal component regression (PCR) model, were also used for the simultaneous determination of the 3 drugs in the ternary mixture. A training set consisting of 15 mixtures containing different ratios of A, B, and C was used. The concentration used for the construction of the PLS and PCR models varied between 4 and 25 μg/mL for each drug. These models were used after their validation for the prediction of the concentrations of A, B, and C in mixtures. The detection limits for A, B, and C were calculated to be 0.13, 0.15, and 0.14 μg/mL, respectively, and the percent recoveries were found to be 99.8 ± 0.96, 99.9 ± 0.94, and 99.9 ± 1.18, respectively, for both methods. The 3 proposed procedures are rapid, simple, sensitive, and accurate. No preliminary separation steps or resolution equations are required; thus, they can be applied to the simultaneous determination of the 3 drugs in commercial tablets and suppositories or in quality-control laboratories.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Cairo University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Kasr El-Aini St, PO Box 11562, Cairo, Egypt.

Publication date: 2005-07-01

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  • The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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