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Simultaneous Determination of Three Opiates in Serum by Micellar Liquid Chromatography Using Direct Injection

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A simple and reliable micellar liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 3 opiates (codeine, morphine, and thebaine) in serum, using direct injection and ultraviolet detection. The separation of the drugs was optimized on a C18 column, thermostatically controlled at 25°C, by evaluating mobile phases containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and various modifiers (propanol, butanol, or pentanol). Adequate resolution of the opiates was obtained with a chemometrics approach, in which retention was modeled as a first step by using the retention factors for several mobile phases. Next, an optimization criterion that takes into account the position and shape of the chromatographic peaks was applied. The 3 opiates were totally resolved and determined in 12 min with the mobile phase 0.15M SDS–7% (v/v) butanol buffered at pH 7. The limits of detection for codeine and morphine were greatly improved by using fluorimetric detection. Repeatability and intermediate precision were tested for 3 different concentrations of the drugs, and the relative standard deviations were <0.8% for most of the assays. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the determination of morphine and codeine in serum samples.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Universitat Jaume I, Àrea de Química Analítica, C.C.E.E., E.S.T.C.E., Campus Riu Sec, 12080, Castelló, Spain. 2: Dr. Hari Singh Gour University, Department of Criminology and Forensic Science, Sagar, M.P., India. 3: Hospital Verge dels Lliris, Servei d'Anàlisis Clíniques, 03804, Alcoi, Alacant, Spain.

Publication date: 2005-03-01

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  • The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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