A Multicommutated Flow System for Determination of Bismuth in Milk Shakes by Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry Incorporating On-Line Neutralization of Waste Effluent
A highly sensitive method was developed for determination of bismuth in milk shakes by multicommutation hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) based on off-line sonication for 10 min with aqua regia 8% (v/v) and on-line waste treatment. The instrumentation and chemistry variables were studied in order to provide the best performance. The limit of detection in the original samples, established for a probability level of 99.6% (k = 3), was 1.67 ng/g Bi. The method provides a fast alternative in control analysis with a sampling throughput of 72 h as compared with 31 h obtained by the classical continuous measurement. Additionally, multicommutation reduces waste generation by a factor of 2.6. The consumption of sample, reductant, and blank, as compared with continuous mode HG-AFS, was reduced 9.6, 4.5, and 13.3 times, respectively. To confirm the accuracy of the method, recovery studies were performed, and excellent agreement between multicommutation and continuous measurement-based values was obtained. Application of the developed methodology for bismuth determination in milk shake samples from the Spanish market provided concentrations ranging from 4.2 to 15.0 ng/mL, and good comparability with data obtained by continuous measurements after microwave-assisted total digestion of samples for a 95% probability level and 12 degrees of freedom was found.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Universitat de València, Departamento de Química Analítica, Research Building, 50 Dr. Moliner St, 46100 Burjassot, València, Spain.
Publication date: 2004-09-01
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- The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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