Detection and Quantification of Cocoa Butter Equivalents in Cocoa Butter and Plain Chocolate by Gas Liquid Chromatography of Triacylglycerols

Authors: Buchgraber, Manuela1; Senaldi, Chiara1; Ulberth, Franz2; Anklam, Elke1

Source: Journal of AOAC International, Volume 87, Number 5, September 2004 , pp. 1153-1163(11)

Publisher: AOAC International

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Abstract:

The development and in-house testing of a method for the detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents in cocoa butter and plain chocolate is described. A database consisting of the triacylglycerol profile of 74 genuine cocoa butter and 75 cocoa butter equivalent samples obtained by high-resolution capillary gas liquid chromatography was created, using a certified cocoa butter reference material (IRMM-801) for calibration purposes. Based on these data, a large number of cocoa butter/cocoa butter equivalent mixtures were arithmetically simulated. By subjecting the data set to various statistical tools, reliable models for both detection (univariate regression model) and quantification (multivariate model) were elaborated. Validation data sets consisting of a large number of samples (n = 4050 for detection, n = 1050 for quantification) were used to test the models. Excluding pure illipĂ© fat samples from the data set, the detection limit was determined between 1 and 3% foreign fat in cocoa butter. Recalculated for a chocolate with a fat content of 30%, these figures are equal to 0.3–0.9% cocoa butter equivalent. For quantification, the average error for prediction was estimated to be 1.1% cocoa butter equivalent in cocoa butter, without prior knowledge of the materials used in the blend corresponding to 0.3% in chocolate (fat content 30%). The advantage of the approach is that by using IRMM-801 for calibration, the established mathematical decision rules can be transferred to every testing laboratory.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg, B-2440 Geel, Belgium. 2: European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg, B-2440 Geel, Belgium; Former address: BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Gregor Mendel Strasse 33, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.

Publication date: September 1, 2004

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  • The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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