Employment of Peak Area as Instrumental Datum for Improving the Voltammetric Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Fresh and Sea Water in the Presence of Surfactants
Abstract:Peak area instead of peak height is used for the simultaneous determination of Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) in fresh and sea water in the presence of anionic and cationic surfactants by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. These species, if present, tend to make more irreversible the electrodic process of the metals. Because the employment of peak area for species having irreversible electrodic processes permits limits of detection about one or 2 orders of magnitude lower, this work shows the possibility of determining heavy metals at ultratrace level concentrations in the presence of surfactants, compounds which are always present in natural waters. The precision and accuracy of the analytical method were checked by the analysis of the standard reference materials (SRM) Fresh Water NIST-SRM 1643d, Sea Water BCR-CRM 403, and Estuarine Water BCR-CRM 505. The former, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr), and the latter, expressed as relative error (e), were satisfactory, being in all cases lower than 5%. The analytical procedure has been applied to fresh and sea water sampled in the Po river mouth area (Italy).
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: University of Bologna, Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician,” Via Selmi 2, I-40126, Bologna, Italy.
Publication date: January 1, 2002
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