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Employment of Peak Area as Instrumental Datum for Improving the Voltammetric Quantitative Analysis of Heavy Metals in Fresh and Sea Water in the Presence of Surfactants

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Peak area instead of peak height is used for the simultaneous determination of Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) in fresh and sea water in the presence of anionic and cationic surfactants by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. These species, if present, tend to make more irreversible the electrodic process of the metals. Because the employment of peak area for species having irreversible electrodic processes permits limits of detection about one or 2 orders of magnitude lower, this work shows the possibility of determining heavy metals at ultratrace level concentrations in the presence of surfactants, compounds which are always present in natural waters. The precision and accuracy of the analytical method were checked by the analysis of the standard reference materials (SRM) Fresh Water NIST-SRM 1643d, Sea Water BCR-CRM 403, and Estuarine Water BCR-CRM 505. The former, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr), and the latter, expressed as relative error (e), were satisfactory, being in all cases lower than 5%. The analytical procedure has been applied to fresh and sea water sampled in the Po river mouth area (Italy).
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: University of Bologna, Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician,” Via Selmi 2, I-40126, Bologna, Italy.

Publication date: 2002-01-01

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  • The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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