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Isolation of Lipid and 2-Alkylcyclobutanones from Irradiated Foods by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

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The 2-alkylcyclobutanone method was adopted as a European Standard (EN1785) and MAFF Validated Method (MAFF V37) in 1996 for the detection of irradiated food containing fat. As the method requires a relatively long period (ca 2 days) of time for extraction of the 2-alkylcyclobutanones from a foodstuff, a means was sought to increase the speed at which these irradiation markers could be isolated while at the same time decreasing the amount of organic solvents required. Thus, the technique of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was investigated. Results showed that SFE can be used for the rapid extraction (60 min) of lipid from irradiated foods such as chicken, pork, liquid whole egg, ground beef, and from the seeds of irradiated mango and papaya with only 10 mL n-hexane being necessary for collection of the extracted sample. A method was also developed whereby the 2-alkylcyclobutanones can be selectively extracted from irradiated foods without prior extraction of the lipid. The sample extract, in 10 mL n-hexane, is purified through a Florisil SPE cartridge which is washed with 10 mL n-hexane and the 2-alkylcyclobutanones eluted with 10 mL 2% diethyl ether in n-hexane before analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone were selectively extracted from irradiated chicken meat, liquid whole egg, ground beef, and mango as well as from beef burgers and baked products containing irradiated ground beef and liquid whole egg, respectively. Using this method, samples can be analyzed for irradiation treatment within 6 h as opposed to the 2-day period required for the EN1785/MAFF V37 validated method.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: The Queen's University of Belfast, Food Science Division, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development for Northern Ireland, Newforge Ln, Belfast BT9 5PX, UK.

Publication date: 2001-05-01

More about this publication?
  • The Journal of AOAC INTERNATIONAL publishes refereed papers and reviews in the fields of chemical, biological and toxicological analytical chemistry for the purpose of showcasing the most precise, accurate and sensitive methods for analysis of foods, food additives, supplements and contaminants, cosmetics, drugs, toxins, hazardous substances, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers and the environment available at that point in time. The scope of the Journal includes unpublished original research describing new analytical methods, techniques and applications; improved approaches to sampling, both in the field and the laboratory; better methods of preparing samples for analysis; collaborative studies substantiating the performance of a given method; statistical techniques for evaluating data. The Journal will also publish other articles of general interest to its audience, e.g., technical communications; cautionary notes; comments on techniques, apparatus, and reagents.
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