The Types of Suffering in the Mahāvyutpatti and the Pāli Canon
In this paper an analysis is attempted of the triple suffering (duhkha-duhkhatā, samskāra-duhkhatā, vipariņāma-duhkhatā) as it appears in the Mahāvyutpatti and in earlier sources. Comparing it to some non-buddhistic triads (e.g.
in the Yoga-sūtra) and similar concepts in the Pāli Canon and its commentaries, a connection is suggested to the trilakşaņa (duhkha, anitya, anātman) and to the frequent series old age - disease - death. It appears that the original understanding
of samskāra-duhkhatā was probably not the suffering related to subliminal impressions but rather the suffering inherent in anything of a composite nature.