Rehabilitation and Return-to-Sports Activity after Debridement and Bone Marrow Stimulation of Osteochondral Talar Defects
Authors: van Eekeren, Inge C.M.; Reilingh, Mikel L.; >C. Niek van Dijk,
Source: Sports Medicine, Volume 42, Number 10, 1 October 2012 , pp. 857-870(14)
Publisher: Adis International
Abstract:An osteochondral defect (OD) is a lesion involving the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone. ODs of the talus can severely impact on the quality of life of patients, who are usually young and athletic. The primary treatment for ODs that are too small for fixation, consists of arthroscopic debridement and bone marrow stimulation. This article delineates levels of activity, determines times for return to activity and reviews the factors that affect rehabilitation after arthroscopic debridement and bone marrow stimulation of a talar OD. Articles for review were obtained from a search of the MEDLINE database up to January 2012 using the search headings `osteochondral defects', `bone marrow stimulation', `sports/activity', `rehabilitation', various other related factors and `talus'. English-, Dutch- and German-language studies were evaluated.The review revealed that there is no consensus in the existing literature about rehabilitation times or return-to-sports activity times, after treatment with bone marrow stimulation of ODs in the talus. Furthermore, scant research has been conducted on these issues. The literature also showed that potential factors that aid rehabilitation could include youth, lower body mass index, smaller OD size, mobilization and treatment with growth factors, platelet-rich plasma, biphosphonates, hyaluronic acid and pulse electromagnetic fields. However, most studies have been conducted in vitro or on animals. We propose a scheme, whereby return-to-sports activity is divided into four phases of increasing intensity: walking, jogging, return to non-contact sports (running without swerving) and return to contact sports (running with swerving and collision). We also recommend that research, conducted on actual sportsmen, of recovery times after treatment of talar ODs is warranted.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 2012-10-01