Doppler Echocardiography for the Estimation of Cardiac Output with Exercise
Source: Sports Medicine, Volume 32, Number 15, 2002 , pp. 973-986(14)
Publisher: Adis International
Insights into both normal and pathological cardiac responses to exercise have been hampered by lack of a safe, accurate, feasible means of estimating cardiac output () during high-intensity and maximal exercise. Doppler ultrasound noninvasively measures blood velocity as it exits the heart and can be performed during exhaustive exercise without interference of the subject or need for steady state. From the product of aortic blood velocity and cross-sectional area of the aorta, stroke volume (SV) can be calculated. Despite these advantages of the Doppler technique, a number of potential sources of error have raised concern regarding the accuracy of this method. These include transducer angulation, change in aortic cross-sectional area during exercise, turbulence and alteration of a flat velocity profile in the aorta with increased , and uncertainties regarding the proper location for measurement of aortic outflow area.
The magnitude of the influence of these potentially confounding variables on the accuracy of SV measurements determined by the Doppler technique is unknown. Estimates of both construct and concurrent validity suggest that the overall error may be small. Test-retest studies have indicated a high level of reliability with this technique.
Document Type: Review Article
Publication date: 2002-01-01