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Open Access The Estrogenic Content of Rodent Diets, Bedding, Cages, and Water Bottles and Its Effect on Bisphenol A Studies

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Abstract:

The lowest observed adverse effect level for bisphenol A (BPA) in mice and rats is currently poorly defined due to inconsistent study designs and results in published studies. The objectives of the current study were to (1) compare the estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles to evaluate their impact on the estrogenic activity of BPA and (2) review the literature on BPA to determine the most frequently reported diets, beddings, cages, and water bottles used in animal studies. Our literature review indicated that low-dose BPA animal studies have inconsistent results and that factors contributing to this inconsistency are the uses of high-phytoestrogen diets and the different routes of exposure. In 44% (76 of 172) of all reports, rodents were exposed to BPA via the subcutaneous route. Our literature review further indicated that the type of diet, bedding, caging, and water bottles used in BPA studies were not always reported. Only 37% (64 of 172) of the reports described the diet used. In light of these findings, we recommend the use of a diet containing low levels of phytoestrogen (less than 20 μg/g diet) and metabolizable energy (approximately 3.1 kcal/g diet) and estrogen-free bedding, cages, and water bottles for studies evaluating the estrogenic activity of endocrine-disrupting compounds such as BPA. The oral route of BPA exposure should be used when results are to be extrapolated to humans.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Comparative Medicine Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA. thigpen@niehs.nih.gov 2: Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA 3: Biostatistics Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA 4: Comparative Medicine Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA 5: University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA 6: National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA 7: Laboratory of Structural Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA 8: Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA 9: US FDA, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas, USA

Publication date: March 1, 2013

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  • The Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (JAALAS) serves as an official communication vehicle for the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS). The journal includes a section of refereed articles and a section of AALAS association news. The mission of the refereed section of the journal is to disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed information on animal biology, technology, facility operations, management, and compliance as relevant to the AALAS membership. JAALAS accepts research reports (data-based) or scholarly reports (literature-based), with the caveat that all articles, including solicited manuscripts, must include appropriate references and must undergo peer review.

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