The goal of this study was to identify an injectable anesthetic protocol that provides sedation sufficient for peripheral vascular catheterization, intubation, and transport while minimizing cardiovascular changes in Yorkshire and Yucatan pigs with and without cardiovascular injury and intervention (CI). Phase 1 examined the safety and efficacy of acepromazine–ketamine, diazepam–ketamine, midazolam–ketamine, and medetomidine–ketamine in 5 healthy Yorkshire pigs. For each drug combination, we obtained multiple measurements of heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, sedation score, ability to catheterize and intubate, and recovery score. Phase 2 evaluated and refined the dose of the most effective Phase 1 anesthetic combination (midazolam–ketamine) in healthy and CI Yorkshire pigs (n = 53 trials). Phase 3 mirrored Phase 2 but tested midazolam–ketamine in healthy and CI Yucatan pigs (n = 34 trials). Midazolam (0.5 mg/kg)–ketamine (25 to 27 mg/kg) was the most effective anesthetic combination in healthy Yorkshire pigs, but this dose was less effective in healthy Yucatan pigs and CI Yorkshire and Yucatan pigs. Midazolam–ketamine resulted in tachycardia and apnea more frequently in CI pigs than healthy pigs. This combination also caused vomiting in one CI Yucatan pig. Overall, midazolam–ketamine provided safe and effective sedation for catheterization and intubation of both healthy and CI pigs. This study suggests Yucatan pigs may require a higher dose midazolam–ketamine to achieve the same level of sedation as that in Yorkshire pigs. Although anesthetic complication rates were higher in CI pigs, our results indicate that midazolam–ketamine can be safely used for sedation of both pig breeds with and without CI.
No Supplementary Data.
Document Type: Research Article
Division of Veterinary Resources, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
Publication date: 2010-05-01
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