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Open Access Inflammation in Response to n3 Fatty Acids in a Porcine Obesity Model

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Abstract:

Fatty acids have distinct cellular effects related to inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Dietary saturated fat activates toll-like receptor 4, which in turn can lead to chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. Conversely, n3 fatty acids are generally antiinflammatory and promote insulin sensitivity, in part via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Ossabaw swine are a useful biomedical model of obesity. We fed Ossabaw pigs either a low-fat control diet or a diet containing high-fat palm oil with or without additional n3 fatty acids for 30 wk to investigate the effect of saturated fats and n3 fatty acids on obesity-linked inflammatory markers. The diet did not influence the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, TNFα, IL6, or IL12. In addition, n3 fatty acids attenuated the increase in inflammatory adipose tissue CD16CD14+ macrophages induced by high palm oil. High-fat diets with and without n3 fatty acids both induced hyperglycemia without hyperinsulinemia. The high-fat only group but not the high-fat group with n3 fatty acids showed reduced insulin sensitivity in response to insulin challenge. This effect was not mediated by decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B. Therefore, in obese Ossabaw swine, n3 fatty acids partially attenuate insulin resistance but only marginally change inflammatory status and macrophage phenotype in adipose tissue.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA 2: Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA 3: Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Nutrition and Wellness Research Center, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA 4: Department of Veterinary Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA 5: Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, Department of Animal Science, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Nutrition and Wellness Research Center, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA. mspoc@iastate.edu

Publication date: December 1, 2012

More about this publication?
  • Comparative Medicine (CM), an international journal of comparative and experimental medicine, is the leading English-language publication in the field and is ranked by the Science Citation Index in the upper third of all scientific journals. The mission of CM is to disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed information that expands biomedical knowledge and promotes human and animal health through the study of laboratory animal disease, animal models of disease, and basic biologic mechanisms related to disease in people and animals.

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