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Open Access Intestinal Cytokine mRNA Expression in Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-Analysis with Critical Appraisal

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Abstract:

Data implicating mucosal cytokines in the pathogenesis of canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are limited. The aims of the present study were to report new findings of intestinal cytokine expression in dogs with IBD and to compare these data with previous studies through meta-analysis. Cytokine mRNA abundance in intestinal biopsies collected prospectively was evaluated by using a semiquantitative RT-PCR technique. For meta-analysis, an electronic database search revealed 3 clinical trials, all of which were nonrandomized (type III) case series. Prospective analysis showed that the intestines of healthy dogs and those with IBD express numerous cytokines and that a proinflammatory expression profile is not a feature of small or large-intestinal IBD. The meta-analysis data included 158 dogs characterized as healthy (n = 45), diarrheic nonIBD dogs (n = 6), nonresponders (n = 2), small-intestinal IBD (n = 41), colonic IBD (n = 25), and chronic enteropathy (n = 39). German shepherd dogs were overrepresented in 3 of the 4 studies. Healthy dogs showed mRNA expression for most cytokines including IL2, IL4, IL5, IL10, IL12, IFN, TNFα, and TGF. Only IL12 mRNA expression was increased consistently in small-intestinal IBD, whereas IBD colitis lacked consistent patterns of expression. In summary, dogs with IBD fail to express a predominant Th1- or Th2 cytokine bias in inflamed mucosa. Heterogeneity of results among these studies might be explained by numerous factors including the method of mRNA quantification, stage of disease, and demographic differences in study populations.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA. ajergens@iastate.edu 2: Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 3: Departments of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 4: Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 5: Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 6: Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

Publication date: 2009-04-01

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  • Comparative Medicine (CM), an international journal of comparative and experimental medicine, is the leading English-language publication in the field and is ranked by the Science Citation Index in the upper third of all scientific journals. The mission of CM is to disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed information that expands biomedical knowledge and promotes human and animal health through the study of laboratory animal disease, animal models of disease, and basic biologic mechanisms related to disease in people and animals.

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