A Novel Swine Model for Evaluation of Potential Intravascular Hemostatic Agents
Authors: Klemcke, Harold G; Cortez, Douglas S; Cox, Ashley B; Ryan, Kathy L
Source: Comparative Medicine, Volume 57, Number 3, June 2007 , pp. 292-297(6)
Abstract:Because uncontrolled hemorrhage is a leading cause of battlefield mortality, finding an intravenous treatment that could assist endogenous clotting mechanisms is a major mission for military researchers. Evaluation of potential intravenous hemostatic agents requires both in vitro and in vivo tests. For in vivo evaluation, we have developed a novel swine model in which 1) bleeding times (BT) and coagulation function could be ascertained after multiple doses of hemostatic drug administration and 2) a subsequent exsanguinating injury could be performed in the same animal, yielding screening information regarding the effects of drug pretreatment on blood loss and survival. Transection of small mesenteric arteries and veins allowed for multiple and reproducible BT measures that correlated with coagulation function. Subsequent excision of defined areas of the liver produced bleeding predominantly from small vessels (diameter, less than 2 mm) and parenchyma while resulting in 62% mortality without the use of either heparinization or aggressive fluid infusion. This swine model allows for multiple, repeatable BT measures in the same animal in experiments already involving laparotomy. Such a model is well suited for terminal studies to test effects of multiple doses of the same drug or multiple drugs on BT and allows for multiple, easily visualized measures that permit enhanced repeatability. The liver injury provides for numerous small vessel lesions that could be amenable to closure by coagulation. Therefore, drugs or mechanisms that enhance coagulation and concomitantly decrease blood loss and increase survival time may be accurately evaluated in this new model.
Document Type: Miscellaneous
Publication date: June 1, 2007
- Comparative Medicine (CM), an international journal of comparative and experimental medicine, is the leading English-language publication in the field and is ranked by the Science Citation Index in the upper third of all scientific journals. The mission of CM is to disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed information that expands biomedical knowledge and promotes human and animal health through the study of laboratory animal disease, animal models of disease, and basic biologic mechanisms related to disease in people and animals.
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